The Invisible Balance Sheet

This book originally published in Swedish 1988 sparked the early "Swedish movement" in measuring intangible assets by inspiring a large number of Swedish companies to start publishing their intangible assets. It outlined the theory that underlies the three "families" of Intangible Assets and it also coined the labels. Both the categorization and the labels have since become close to a standard both in Scandinavia and world wide.




(Human Kapital)


Customer Capital

Structural Capital

Human Capital

The theory and the Swedish labels have been widely used in Sweden since 1987 and they became internationally known when Skandia used it in their Annual Reports from 1991 onwards. The concept was also used by the Swedish Council of Service Industries for a recommendation issued in 1993 on how to report intangible assets. The Konrad group consisted of:

  • Elisabeth Annell, prev. CEO SIFO (market research)
  • Siv Axelsson, HR director Jacobson & Widmark (Technical Consulting)
  • Per-Magnus Emilsson, CEO KREAB (Advertising)
  • Hans Karlsson, Senior Partner KPMG
  • Stig Wikström, Senior Partner Lindebergs auditing firm
  • Karl-Erik Sveiby, Convenor and Editor of the book
  • Carl Johan Wangerud, CEO Health Investment
  • Author
    Konrad group (ed. Karl-erik Sveiby) 1990
  • Published by
    Affärsvärlden Förlag
  • ISBN